This is a great website, created by a teacher / author called Nick Shepherd. These would be particularly good when used with Promethean / Smartboard so you can pause and elaborate. They could also be used to bookend lessons. Take a look.
Students – you could use these as revision tools at home. Try these ideas:
- Can you make notes and summarise what was said?
- Can you try and copy parts of what Nick said?
- Can you make some example sentences of your own to put in your workbooks?
Remember – keeping a written record of what you have studied is an effective way to help remember new language!
Teachers and Students – have you seen this website?
It’s a comprehensive collection of sites like this one – blogs, websites containing loads of stuff for teachers and students. I’ve just been having a surf and hopefully my website will end up listed on there too!
In this post, I want to have a little look at how we interact with each other when we have discussions. Below, I have written a transcript of a conversation between three people at work.
Key: Red, Blue and Black are three speakers. Words in brackets () show when two people are speaking at the same time.
So, I thought that the meeting the other day was… (a bit rubbish)
…totally rubbish! Me too! And I was sure I was going to fall asleep y’know…
Yeah yeah me too! It was horrible! And I’d prepared some stuff to er… to talk about… and I didn’t… in the end I just couldn’t stay awake enough…
…so you’re saying you had things to say? I didn’t even have anything to…
…wait a minute, what was the meeting about?
Erm… about the way the new budget increase will… (be split)
…be split, and it was totally pointless erm… all the managers had already decided where…
Well hang on, I’m not sure about if…
They totally had and I…(thought it…)
Can I finish?
Yeah sorry, go on…
I’m not sure they’ve already decided that the money would go on resources for the training project…
No yeah, totally…
…and maybe saying something would actually help them get an idea…
Hahaha well maybe you’re right there, but anyway…
How many kinds of interruption can you see? Are they all polite or are some of them impolite?
- Finishing sentences – anticipation – a bit rubbish / totally rubbish
- Emphatic agreement – Yeah yeah me too / No yeah totally…
- Disagreement – Well hang on
- Clarification Request – So you’re saying… / Wait a minute
Can you see that when we agree, we often follow our agreement phrase with the word “And”?
Eg: Yeah no totally, and… / It was, wasn’t it? And… / Me too, and…
This makes sure that we keep our turn and can continue speaking. However, when we disagree we often use phrases that mean “Wait”
Eg: Hang on a sec / Wait a minute / Hold on / Well just a minute
We can also ask questions. This shows that we are paying attention and encourages the speaker. We often use the word “So” when we are going to ask a question. Phrases include:
So you’re saying that… / Wait a minute, so…
The other thing that we often do is finish each other’s sentences, anticipating what the other person is going to say. This shows that we know the person, and are comfortable in their company.
Next time you have a discussion, do you notice that other students are using this? Does your teacher use any of these phrases when you’re talking to him / her?
It is useful to get a few of these phrases more automatised, so students could benefit from some drilling with a lot of these. Repetitive drilling, call and answer drills and backchained drills could all be effective.
As a practice, you could either use the Cambridge Exam speaking section where two students have to discuss a set of pictures, or you could play a game where students have to try to successfully interrupt each other in a topic-based discussion, with points gained for natural / polite interruptions. You could also use a game where one student is trying to tell a story and the other students are preventing them from being able to finish by using some of these phrases to slow them down.
You could use the model above as an analysis tool in the middle of a task-based lesson.
Teacher’s note: This is for an hour-long class – TTT. It’s for Pre-Int, but could be adapted for higher levels / used as a revision tool for higher levels.
What do you think the text below the picture is going to be about?
The text below has some words (A, AN, THE) missing. Can you put them in?
I was on my way to restaurant with my friends a few months ago when we saw man wearing black jumper. Man came over to us and asked us for money. He was really big and only girl in our group was bit scared so I told him to go away. He got really angry and took knife out of his pocket. Knife was gold and looked really new. We were all surprised so we ran in to forest behind restaurant and I climbed apple tree. I stayed in tree until morning! All other guys were looking for me all night! People said I was crazy after that for a long time.
(Teacher’s note: This text could be spaced out and students have to insert cut-up the / a in to the correct spaces in pairs.)
Have a look at the correct text:
I was on my way to a restaurant with my friends a few months ago when we saw a man wearing a black jumper. The man came over to us and asked us for money. He was really big and the only girl in our group was a bit scared so I told him to go away. He got really angry and took a knife out of his pocket. The knife was gold and looked really new. We were all surprised so we ran in to the forest behind the restaurant and I climbed an apple tree. I stayed in the tree until morning! All the other guys were looking for me all night! People said I was crazy after that for a long time.
Did you get these all correct? Let’s look at a few rules:
(Teacher’s note: Cut up the rules and give them to students. Students move around the class and compare the information. Once they have shared the rules, they are presented with a paper copy of them all and language negotiation stage starts)
1) We use “a” to talk about one noun.
- When it is not one specific thing
- When it is the first time we talk about the thing
I saw a man wearing a black jumper.
How many men did I see? Do I know the man?
Would you like a cup of tea?
Is it a specific cup of tea? No, because I haven’t made it yet!
2) We use the when we know the thing or things we are talking about.
The man came over to us…
I already talked about this man, so we now know which one I’m talking about.
Let’s go to the park next to your house.
Do I know which park? Yes, so we use THE.
Let’s go to a park together.
Do I know which park? No, so we use A until we have decided which park to go to.
3) We put A and THE before nouns, or before the adjectives describing the nouns.
A black jumper.
4) THE can be singular or plural.
The only girl in the group OR all the other guys (if we know which ‘guys’ we are talking about).
5) If we are talking about groups in general, we don’t use A or THE.
______People said I was crazy after that for a long time.
Which people? People in general, not a specific group, so we use NOTHING.
The people in my class think I’m crazy.
Do I know which people? Yes, so we use THE.
6) We use AN for the same things as A, but the word after starts with A, E, I, O and U (when the sound is U like in UP, not U like in UNIVERSITY)
I climbed an apple tree.
Now let’s try again. Can you use the rules above to help you complete this text?
Teacher’s Note: As with ex. 1 .
I went to cinema next to bank in my village yesterday. I saw amazing film. Film was about cat that falls in love with dog. Dog doesn’t know and starts chasing cat. It’s comedy and I really liked it because it reminded me of Tom and Jerry. People in cinema were laughing lots, but I know people have said that it isn’t very good film. I don’t care; I thought it was best film this year!
Now let’s take a look at the answer:
I went to the cinema next to the bank in my village yesterday. I saw an amazing film. The film was about a cat that falls in love with a dog. The dog doesn’t know and starts chasing the cat. It’s a comedy and I really liked it because it reminded me of Tom and Jerry. The people in cinema were laughing lots, but I know people have said that it isn’t a very good film. I don’t care; I thought it was the best film this year!
How did you do?
OK, maybe just thousands rather than thousands and thousands. This is basically a whole load of word documents containing ideas for activities / half lessons / longer lessons. In the word docs, I usually use Ctrl+F to search for key words rather than trawling through the lot of them – there are rather a lot, but I’ve found so many useful, fun things to do from these. So here they are: enjoy!
If you have just finished your CELTA / TEFL etc and have started your first teaching job, you are probably finding life pretty tough at the moment. This is the period of time when planning takes longer than the lesson itself, your sleep is interrupted by feverish dreams about classes, and inside the classroom if anything happens that you didn’t expect, it results in panic and demoralisation.
It gets easier. Believe me, it gets easier. And fairly quickly. But what can you do in the interim? Survive? I recently asked a new teacher to write down a list of problems she has had in her first two weeks of teaching and they make for interesting reading due in no small part to their familiarity – I reckon a lot of new teachers experience at least a few if not all of these problems. With this in mind, I have posted the problems below, along with a few solutions that might make your life a bit easier.
1) I don’t know how much to prepare, or how much material a class will get through in the lesson.
2) I can’t tell if students will whizz through an activity or whether they will struggle with it.
Timing is a problem that a lot of teachers experience, even later in their careers. When this transfers to the classroom, there can be a fear of under-preparing material. Bear in mind though, that there is no necessity to complete everything you have prepared. With this in mind, let’s focus on two areas of a lesson – controlled practice and the end of the lesson.
Controlled Practice: If you are teaching grammar / vocab / discourse / phonology, you will have a controlled practice stage in the lesson. Remember though, that “control” is not something that is on a single level. There are degrees of control, some freer than others. Why not prepare an extra controlled practice, that can be used if learners need it and dropped if they don’t?
If this is a skills focus, you may not have a controlled practice. That doesn’t mean that skills practice can’t be repeated though. If they have done a speaking activity they could do it again in different groups, a different situation or with a greater degree of autonomy. If it’s reading, they could summarise, report, write or collect vocab. If it’s listening, talk to them. Tell them a story – this is called Live Listening. If it’s writing, they can read and correct other’s work. All of these things can be put in or taken out.
The end of the lesson: This is where you can put emerging language on the board, error correct, chat or get learners to reflect on what they’ve learnt. How many of these things you do is up to you. If time is short, you can just get them to reflect and leave the emerging language until the next class (I’m not suggesting you leave it all together – if it’s come up, then students need it). This stage is very flexible indeed – anywhere from 2-15 minutes. Remember this and schedule it in your plan.
So, at these stages, over-plan and consider these areas as flexible.
Have you just finished your CELTA / TEFL / other pre-service qualification? Have you been teaching a while and you now have to produce a plan for an observation? Chances are this is quite irritating.
Anybody can write down what they are going to do. But does it make sense? Is the order logical? Are the students learning? What the hell are my aims anyway?!
What will the students be better able to do by the end of the lesson? How will this be achieved?
At this stage, think about what is achievable and what is not. For example, “Students will be able to use passives” is not an achievable aim if you are introducing it for the first time. “Students will be better able to recognise present passive forms” IS. Tailor the aim to the level of the class and don’t bite off more than you can chew. Here’s an example:
By the end of the lesson, the students will be better able to hear the difference between /ɪ/ and /i:/
This will be achieved through:
- A listening activity in which students discriminate between the sounds
- A systems focus that looks at sound length and use of the diaphragm
- A controlled practice activity in which students are drilled using display sentences
- A free practice activity in which students create their own sentences using the sounds
It is no more complicated than that. You are looking for students to be more aware to start with. Production comes with a lot of repetition, at a level you can not provide in a single lesson.
What have I missed? What should come next? Broadly speaking, I have found that keeping it simple helps. Don’t overload on activities, don’t teach the same language twice, don’t lead in to the language focus twice. A brief outline could be:
Speaking / Listening / Reading / Writing – lead-in, activity that helps students notice what they can’t do, skills focus, repeat or expand on skill, feedback
Lexis / Grammar / Discourse / Phonology – lead-in, activity that helps students notice what they can’t do, systems focus, controlled practice, freer practice, feedback
That IS over-simplifying it a bit, but the idea is true: Don’t overload. Don’t be afraid to talk or to teach. Make sure everything is covered in the correct amount of depth. This can take time.
Below are some suggested structures for an hour-long lesson. If the lesson is longer, either the timings can be adjusted, an extra stage can be added in (do students need two controlled practice activities) or the cycle can be used twice for two separate language points that then join together. For example, if you are doing PPP, you might do PPP1, PPP2 and then combined activity 3.
Hope this helps somebody!
Have you seen these?
This is from the Headway coursebook. You can click on your level, then choose to review units from the book, or there are grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation games to look at. I think this site is a really useful learning tool, AND fun!
So, my scribd account, www.scribd.com/SRenglish is where I store links to course books, resource books and theoretical material online. I’m always adding to it, so go and take a look. Amongst other things, all the Cutting Edge and New English file books are currently linked there, as are the Extra book series (Reading, Speaking, Listening and Writing), Pronunciation Games and also an assortment of academic reference materials by Thornbury, Larson-Freeman etc.
I believe I’m legally obliged to mention that these are links for reference only…
“Teacher, I want more phrasal verbs”. Ever heard that one before? Students come here with this idea that phrasal verbs are a mystical force, a secret code that we native speakers talk in so as to exclude all the “outsiders”. Nothing could be further from the truth, but we are almost cornered in to teaching them as if they were magic. They aren’t; they’re vocab. Yes, some are idiomatic. Yes, some are separable. But these are only aspects of meaning and form.
I did a bit of research in to this area after deciding that course books don’t deal with them at all satisfactorily and I stumbled across the idea of a lexical notebook. It came from this “Teaching Collocation” by Michael Lewis, and Scribd has it here: http://www.scribd.com/doc/76949359/Teaching-Collocations-1
Basically, it encourages students to view vocabulary sententially, but this is particularly helpful for phrasal verbs, as they are then encouraged to record these by topic and co-text rather than in a long list called “Phrasal Verbs”.
I spent some time analysing phrasal verbs, and you can find a copy of my work here:
What I’ve also done is attach my step-by-step lesson plan for my first DELTA observation, along with the text I prepared. It’s for Intermediate level, but it gives a possibility of how phrasal verbs can be introduced on your terms to a class with typical concerns about them. I found the language from a text method really useful, because it encouraged students to discover the vocabulary for themselves, thereby seeing it in context and viewing it as vocab rather than magic. The links to the lesson are below:
I was pretty happy with this lesson and it passed the first assessment, so even happier!
I love food. Because of this, I have developed a number of materials that allow me to teach students about it. My enthusiasm = their enthusiasm or something. Anyway, I designed these for World Food Day, which, besides being about food, is actually about helping third world countries. So there’s the schemata. Hope some of these prove to be enjoyable.
ARGH! I’ve still got 15 minutes left! How many times have I said that in a classroom?? Well, none actually, but I’ve certainly thought it on many, many occasions. Sometimes I just can’t think of a game that doesn’t provoke the response “Oh, THIS again…”. Well, here’s a few lists of games and quick activities that can be really helpful in this situation. And, as it goes, a lot of them can be used or adapted for freer practice activities. I hope these are of some help.